Epithelial epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for approximately 95% of cases. This cancer exhibits diverse histological subtypes like serous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinomas, each with unique characteristics and clinical implications. Techniques including Western blots, ELISA, flow cytometry, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry can provide vital information about cell proliferation and disease progression, which is critical for the early detection, prognosis/monitoring, and treatment of the disease.
NeoBiotechnologies proudly offers a comprehensive selection of antibodies for ovarian cancer research (see the table below), with a particular emphasis on IHC-validated antibodies targeting ovarian cancer protein markers. Our antibodies are rigorously validated for specificity, ensuring precise and reliable results.
Notable ovarian cancer markers:
- CA-125 (Cancer Antigen 125): one of the most well-known biomarkers for ovarian cancer. It is elevated in the blood of many ovarian cancer patients and is used for monitoring response to treatment and disease recurrence.
- HE4 (Human Epididymis Protein 4): a protein often elevated in the blood of ovarian cancer patients. It can be used in combination with CA-125 to improve the sensitivity and specificity of ovarian cancer diagnosis.
- p53: Mutations and abnormal expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in high-grade serous ovarian cancer and can influence prognosis and treatment options.
- BRCA1 and BRCA2: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Testing for these mutations helps identify high-risk individuals and can guide preventive measures.
- ER (Estrogen Receptor): ER expression is used to diagnose borderline and low-grade serous ovarian cancers. Hormone therapy may be considered in some cases.
- PR (Progesterone Receptor): expression is also used to diagnose borderline and low-grade serous ovarian cancers.
- ERBB2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2): Overexpression or amplification of ERBB2 (HER2) is found in a subset of ovarian cancers and may be targetable with anti-HER2 therapies.
- CA-72-4: a tumor marker that can be elevated in certain types of ovarian cancer.
- CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen): levels can be elevated in ovarian cancer, and it is used for monitoring treatment response and disease recurrence.
- Vimentin: an intermediate filament protein often expressed in ovarian cancer cells and can be used in immunohistochemistry for diagnosis.
- Inhibin: a marker for granulosa cell tumors, a rare subtype of ovarian cancer.
- Calretinin: used in IHC to identify specific subtypes of ovarian cancer, such as mesothelioma and sex cord-stromal tumors.
- Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): a marker for certain germ cell tumors, which are a distinct subtype of ovarian cancer.