Lung cancer primarily encompasses non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), each with unique characteristics and implications for patient management. Techniques including Western blots, ELISA, flow cytometry, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry can distinguish among the different types of lung cancer and provide vital information about cell proliferation and disease progression, which is critical for the early detection, prognosis/monitoring, and treatment of the disease.
NeoBiotechnologies proudly offers a comprehensive selection of antibodies for lung cancer research (see the table below), with a particular emphasis on IHC-validated antibodies. Our antibodies are rigorously validated for specificity, ensuring precise and reliable results.
Notable lung cancer protein biomarkers:
- Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR): EGFR mutations or overexpression are common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are used for patients with EGFR mutations.
- ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase): ALK rearrangements are found in a subset of NSCLC cases. Targeted therapies like crizotinib are used to treat ALK-positive lung cancer.
- ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1): ROS1 rearrangements are another targetable alteration in NSCLC. Crizotinib and other ALK/ROS1 inhibitors are used in treatment.
- PD-L1 (Programmed Death-Ligand 1): PD-L1 expression on tumor cells can indicate potential responsiveness to immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, for advanced NSCLC.
- KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma viral oncogene homolog): KRAS mutations are common in lung cancer, especially in adenocarcinoma. They can influence prognosis and treatment decisions.
- p53 (Tumor Protein 53): TP53 mutations are found in many lung cancers and may be associated with a worse prognosis.
- RET (Rearranged During Transfection): RET fusions are a targetable alteration in NSCLC, and specific inhibitors like selpercatinib and pralsetinib are used in treatment.
- BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1): BRAF V600E mutations are found in some NSCLC cases and can be targeted with therapies like dabrafenib and trametinib.
- NTRK (Neurotrophic Tyrosine Kinase Receptor): NTRK fusions are rare but actionable alterations in NSCLC, and larotrectinib and entrectinib are used for treatment.
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen (SCCA): a marker used for squamous cell carcinoma, a subtype of NSCLC.
- TTF-1 (Thyroid Transcription Factor-1): an immunohistochemical marker that can help identify lung adenocarcinomas and other tumors of lung origin.
- CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen): levels can be elevated in lung cancer, and this marker is often used for monitoring treatment response and disease recurrence.
- MUC1 (Mucin 1): a protein overexpressed in many lung cancers, particularly adenocarcinomas.
- ProGRP (Pro-Gastrin-Releasing Peptide): a marker for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and can be used for diagnosis and monitoring.
- NSE (Neuron-Specific Enolase): a general marker used in SCLC cases and can be indicative of the tumor burden.
- Chromogranin A: a marker for neuroendocrine tumors, including SCLC.