Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the breast tissue. It encompasses several distinct types, differing in terms of origins and growth patterns. Techniques including Western blots, ELISA, flow cytometry, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry can distinguish among the different types of breast cancer and provide vital information about cell proliferation and disease progression, which is critical for the early detection, prognosis/monitoring, and treatment of the disease.
NeoBiotechnologies is your trusted partner in breast cancer research, offering a comprehensive range of high-quality IHC-validated antibodies targeting breast cancer protein markers (see the table below).
Notable breast cancer markers:
- Estrogen Receptor (ER): ER-positive breast cancer is characterized by the presence of estrogen receptors on the cancer cells. ER status is crucial for treatment decisions, as patients with ER-positive tumors may benefit from hormone therapy.
- Progesterone Receptor (PR): PR-positive breast cancer indicates the presence of progesterone receptors on the cancer cells. Similar to ER, hormone therapy may be used in the treatment of PR-positive tumors.
- Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2): HER2-positive breast cancer has amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene or protein. HER2 status helps determine treatment options, as targeted therapies like trastuzumab (Herceptin) are used in HER2-positive cases.
- Ki-67: a protein associated with cell proliferation. Its measurement can provide information about the growth rate of breast cancer cells, which is essential for prognosis and treatment planning.
- p53: a protein involved in regulating cell growth and DNA repair. Mutations in the p53 gene and aberrant expression of the p53 protein are associated with some forms of breast cancer and can affect prognosis and treatment decisions.
- Cyclin D1: a protein involved in cell cycle regulation and is often overexpressed in specific breast cancer subtypes, such as luminal breast cancers.
- Topoisomerase II (Topo II): an enzyme involved in DNA replication and repair. Its expression can impact the responsiveness of breast cancer to specific chemotherapy agents.
- Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR): a cell surface receptor that can be overexpressed in some breast cancer subtypes, and its presence may influence treatment decisions. EGFR expression or overexpression is associated with some breast cancer subtypes and may influence treatment options.
- Cytokeratins (CK): intermediate filament proteins found in epithelial cells, including breast cancer cells. They are often used in immunohistochemistry to identify and subtype breast cancer cells.
- BRCA1 and BRCA2: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with an increased risk of hereditary breast cancer. Testing for these mutations can help identify individuals at high risk for breast cancer.
- PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog): Loss of PTEN expression is associated with some breast cancers and may be related to treatment response and prognosis.