Colon cancer encompasses various types, each with unique characteristics and implications for patient management. The most common types of colon cancer include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, and mucinous carcinoma. Techniques including Western blots, ELISA, flow cytometry, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry can distinguish among the different types of colon cancer and provide vital information about cell proliferation and disease progression, which is critical for the early detection, prognosis/monitoring, and treatment of the disease.
NeoBiotechnologies proudly offers a comprehensive selection of antibodies for colon cancer research (see the table below), with a particular emphasis on IHC-validated antibodies. Our antibodies are rigorously validated for specificity, ensuring precise and reliable results.
Notable colon cancer protein biomarkers:
- Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA): one of the most well-known biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Elevated levels of CEA in the blood can be indicative of colorectal cancer and are often used for monitoring treatment response and disease recurrence.
- KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma viral oncogene homolog): Mutations in the KRAS gene are common in colorectal cancer and are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) therapies. Testing for KRAS mutations helps guide treatment decisions.
- NRAS (Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog): Mutations in NRAS are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies. Testing for NRAS mutations is essential for personalized treatment strategies.
- BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1): Mutations in the BRAF gene, particularly the V600E mutation, are associated with a poor prognosis in colon cancer. Testing for BRAF mutations helps determine the prognosis and potential treatment strategies.
- Microsatellite Instability (MSI): a marker of genetic instability, and MSI-high colon cancer has a different prognosis and may respond differently to immunotherapy. Testing for MSI status is important for treatment decisions.
- PD-L1 (Programmed Death-Ligand 1): expression is associated with the potential response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, making it relevant for immunotherapy decisions in advanced colorectal cancer.
- p53: Mutations and abnormal expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in colorectal cancer and can influence prognosis and treatment options.
- PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate 3-Kinase Catalytic Subunit Alpha): Mutations in PIK3CA are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies and can affect treatment decisions.
- SMAD4 (SMAD Family Member 4): Loss of SMAD4 expression or function is associated with a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer and may influence treatment choices.
- CDX2 (Caudal-Type Homeobox 2): a marker of intestinal differentiation and is often used in immunohistochemistry to identify colorectal cancer cells.
- Topoisomerase II (Topo II): an enzyme involved in DNA replication and repair. Its expression can impact the responsiveness of colorectal cancer to specific chemotherapy agents.
- CD133 (Prominin-1): CD133 is a marker for cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer and may be associated with tumor aggressiveness and resistance to therapy.
- CEBPA (CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Alpha): Aberrant expression of CEBPA can influence the growth and differentiation of colon cancer cells.