CD163 is a cell surface glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 130 kDa. It is primarily expressed on monocytes and macrophages, particularly in the context of anti-inflammatory or “alternatively activated” macrophages. CD163 acts as a scavenger receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex, is involved in the clearance of free hemoglobin from the bloodstream, plays a role in anti-inflammatory responses, and is associated with tissue repair and remodeling.

CD163 has been associated with conditions characterized by increased hemolysis or tissue damage, such as hemolytic anemias, sepsis, and various inflammatory disorders. The upregulation of CD163 in certain cancers, including some types of leukemia and lymphoma, has also been reported.

Antibodies against CD163 are used in research to identify and study macrophages expressing this protein. They are employed in immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and other techniques to analyze the distribution and abundance of CD163 in tissues and blood samples. In a clinical context, CD163 is explored as a potential biomarker for certain diseases, including inflammatory and hematological disorders. Additionally, the dysregulation of CD163 expression has been implicated in certain types of cancer.

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