Osteopontin is a bone matrix protein and a cytokine secreted by activated T cells. Osteopontin (OPN, also designated bone sialoprotein 1, urinary stone protein, spp-1, Î �-1, nephropontin, uropontin) is an extracellular matrix cell adhesion phosphoglycoprotein. OPN is deposited into unmineralized matrix prior to calcification leading to localization at various tissue interfaces including cement lines, lamina limitans, and between collagen fibrils of fully matured hard tissues. While OPN is a major product of osteoblasts, it is also synthesized by brain and kidney cells. OPNs isolated from or secreted by various tissues have molecular weights due to post-translational modifications. OPN functions as a substrate for transglutaminase and is involved in cell adhesion, chemoattraction and immunomodulation.