Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (GPX4) stabilizes cell-substratum interactions during early events of melanoma cell spreading on endothelial basement membranes. NG2 may facilitate primary melanoma progression by enhancing the activation of key signaling pathways important for tumor invasion and growth. Threonine 2256 phosphorylation of rat NG2 (threonine 2252 phosphorylation of human NG2) leads to redistribution of NG2 on the surface of astrocytomas, polarization of the cell and a significant increase in cell motility. NG2 acts as a co-receptor for spreading and focal contact formation in association with 1 integrin in malignant melanoma cells. NG2 is present on blood vessels throughout the rat embryo. Microvessels within the rat CNS express NG2 on endothelial cells, and outside the CNS, NG2 is present on smooth muscle cells. NG2 is a novel marker for epidermal stem cells that contributes to their patterned distribution by promoting stem cell clustering.