IL-2 (Interleukin-2) has a molecular weight of approximately 15 kDa and is primarily produced by activated T cells, particularly CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It can also be produced by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and other immune cells. IL-2 is a key cytokine that plays a central role in regulating immune responses and also functions as a growth factor for T cells, promoting their proliferation and differentiation.

IL-2 dysregulation is associated with autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, where aberrant immune responses can damage tissue. Additionally, deficiency or dysfunction of this cytokine may contribute to immunodeficiency, making individuals more susceptible to infections. IL-2 is also involved in the immune response to cancer, and therapeutic strategies involving IL-2 have been explored for cancer treatment.

Antibodies against IL-2 are used in research to study the expression and function of IL-2 in various biological samples. These antibodies can be used in techniques like ELISA, western blotting, and flow cytometry to detect and quantify IL-2. Clinical applications of IL-2 include its use as a therapeutic agent to boost the immune response against certain cancers, such as metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. In diagnostics, measuring IL-2 levels may be relevant in assessing immune function or identifying immune-related disorders.

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