Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) protein has a molecular weight of approximately 310 kDa. APC is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, with prominent expression in the colon and other tissues where cell growth and division are regulated. The primary function of this protein is to regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, acting as a tumor suppressor by controlling the degradation of β-catenin, a key component of this pathway. By promoting the degradation of β-catenin, APC helps prevent uncontrolled cell growth and division that can lead to the formation of tumors.

APC is critically important for maintaining normal cell growth and preventing the development of colorectal tumors and other types of cancers. Mutations in the APC gene contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in colorectal cancer are strongly associated with the development of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and sporadic colorectal cancer cases, characterized by the development of numerous polyps in the colon that can progress to colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Scientists use antibodies to study APC’s role in regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and its involvement in cancer. Additionally, APC antibodies may be used in diagnostic tests to detect APC mutations in patients at risk of developing FAP or sporadic colorectal cancer, allowing for early detection and tailored treatment plans. From a therapeutic perspective, inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cancer cells has been explored as a potential cancer treatment.

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