Ki-67 antigen is a nuclear, non-histone protein that is present in all stages of the cell cycle except G0. This characteristic makes Ki-67 an excellent marker for proliferating cells and is commonly used as one of the prognostic factors in cancer studies. A correlation has been demonstrated between Ki-67 index and the histo-pathological grade of neoplasms. Assessment of Ki-67 expression in renal and ureter tumors shows a correlation between tumor proliferation and disease progression, thus making it possible to differentiate high-risk patients. Ki-67 expression may also prove to be important for distinguishing between malignant and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Ki-67 labeling index has been shown to be a prognostic marker in a number of neoplasms including grade II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, colon carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. In general, Ki-67 is a good marker of proliferating cell populations.