In Western blotting, it recognizes proteins in MW range of 265-400kDa, identified as different glycoforms of EMA. This MAb reacts with the DTRP epitope in the tandem repeats. The alpha subunit has cell adhesive properties. It can act both as an adhesion and an anti-adhesion protein. EMA may provide a protective layer on epithelial cells against bacterial and enzyme attack. The beta subunit contains a C-terminal domain, which is involved in cell signaling, through phosphorylations and protein-protein interactions.Â �In immunohistochemical assays, it superbly stains routine formalin/paraffin carcinoma tissues. Antibody to EMA is useful as a pan-epithelial marker for detecting early metastatic loci of carcinoma in bone marrow or liver.