Focal adhesions are identified as areas within the plasma membrane of tissue culture cells that adhere tightly to the underlying substrate. In vivo, these regions are involved in the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix. Paxillin and vinculin are cytoskeletal, focal adhesion proteins that are components of a protein complex which links the Actin network to the plasma membrane. Vinculin binding sites have been identified on other cytoskeletal proteins, including Talin and Î �-Actinin. In addition, vinculin, Talin and Î �-Actinin each contain Actin binding sites. Expression of vinculin and Talin have been shown to be affected by the level of Actin expression. Î �-Actinin has been shown to link Actin to integrins in the plasma membrane through interactions with the vinculin and Talin complex or by a direct interaction with integrin.