Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Breast Carcinoma stained with SUMO-2/3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (SM23/496)
Western Blot of HeLa cell lysate using SUMO-2/3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (SM23/496)
Flow Cytometric Analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed HepG2 cells using SUMO-2/3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (SM23/496) followed by goat anti- Mouse- IgG-CF488 (Blue); Isotype Control (Red).
Immunofluorescence staining of paraformaldehyde-fixed MCF-7 cells with SUMO-2/3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (SM23/496) followed by goat anti-Mouse IgG-CF488 (Green). Membrane are labeled with Phalloidin (Red).
Known Applications & Suggested Dilutions
Host / Ig Isotype
Mol. Weight of Antigen
Specificity & Comments
This MAb reacts with both SUMO-2 and SUMO-3. The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins, which include SUMO-1, 2 and 3, belong to the ubiquitin-like protein family. Like ubiquitin, the SUMO proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo processing before conjugation to target proteins. Also, both utilize the E1, E2 and E3 cascade enzymes for conjugation. However, SUMO and ubiquitin differ with respect to targeting. Ubiquitination predominantly targets proteins for degradation, whereas sumoylation targets proteins to a variety of cellular processing, including nuclear transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and protein stability. The unconjugated SUMO-1, 2 and 3 proteins localize to the nuclear membrane, nuclear bodies and cytoplasm, respectively. SUMO-1 utilizes Ubc9 for conjugation to several target proteins, which include MDM2, p53, PML and RanGap1. SUMO-2 and 3 contribute to a greater percentage of protein modification than does SUMO-1. In addition, SUMO-3 regulates beta-Amyloid generation and may be critical in the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease.